By Walter Rüegg

Through targeting the liberty of clinical examine, instructing and examine, the medieval college constitution used to be modernized and enabled discoveries to turn into a qualified, bureaucratically-regulated task of the college. This opened the way in which for the triumphant march of the typical sciences, and ended in pupil movements--resulting within the college being eventually solid within the function of a fortress of political fight in a world-wide struggle for freedom. additionally on hand: quantity 1: Universities within the heart a long time 0-521-36105-2 Hardback $140.00 C quantity 2: Universities in Early smooth Europe (1500-1800) 0-521-36106-0 Hardback $130.00 C

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Extra resources for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800-1945) (A History of the University in Europe)

Sample text

But no one defined this scientific spirit better than the person who, after Schleiermacher, most influenced the development of the University of Berlin, the philologist and histo¨ rian of classical Greece, August Bockh. According to the latter the only appropriate scientific approach is the ‘cyclical method, which consists of linking all phenomena to their centre and of advancing from there step ¨ by step to all points on the circumference’. 31 The new method is therefore worthy of the name ‘nuclear’ because it targets the nucleus, the philosophical essence and the historical or physical origin of natural and spiritual phenomena.

Universit´es en France, 378–89. ¨ ¨ F. Schleiermacher, Gelegentliche Gedanken uber Universitaten im deutschen Sinn. Nebst ¨ ¨ einem Anhang uber eine neu zu errichtende (Berlin, 1808), 32–3, see W. Ruegg, ‘Der ¨ in M. Krieg and M. ), Universitas Mythos der Humboldtschen Universitat’, ¨ Hans Heinrich Schmid zum 60. in theologia – theologia in universitate, Festschrift fur Geburtstag (Zurich, 1997), 162–6; cf. chapter 2, 48. 6 However, liberal reform bore fruit. While, at the beginning of the century, Paris had been a Mecca for scholars and scientists from all over the world, from the 1830s the French Government sent representatives to Germany to enquire about progress in higher education.

Momigliano, Quinto Contributo alla Storia degli studi classici e del mondo antico (Rome, 1975), vol. I, 128. Quarterly Review, 51 (1834), 144–5. 21 Scholars returning from their trips to Germany had begun to introduce the scientific spirit into the colleges by trying to guide tutors towards research. By the turn of the century, Oxford and Cambridge had adhered to the German model to the extent that the importance of research in the teaching of a modern university was accepted. In the volume on the nineteenth century of the History of the University of Oxford, Laurence Brockliss states that the idea of the modern research university advocated by Humboldt was implemented more authentically in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge than in the institutions of Germany, since Oxbridge retained corporate and collegiate autonomy, as well as their primary mission of non-professional education.

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A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, by Walter Rüegg
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