By Earl J. Kirkland

Preface to moment version a number of new themes were extra, a few small mistakes were corrected and a few new references were extra during this version. New issues comprise aberration corrected tools, scanning confocal mode of operations, Bloch wave eigenvalue tools and parallel computing innovations. The ?rst variation - cluded a CD with desktop courses, which isn't integrated during this variation. - stead the linked courses should be to be had on an linked site (currently˜kirkland,but may well movement as time is going on). I desire to thank Mick Thomas for getting ready the specimen used to checklist the picture in Fig.5.26 and to thank Stephen P. Meisburger for suggesting a fascinating organic specimen to take advantage of in Fig.7.24. back, I express regret upfront for leaving out a few undoubtedlyoutstanding r- erences. I additionally say sorry for the as but undiscovered error that stay within the textual content. Earl J. Kirkland, December 2009 Preface to First version snapshot simulation has turn into a typical software in HREM (High answer El- tron Microscopy) in recent times. notwithstanding, the literature at the topic is scattered between many alternative journals and convention lawsuits that experience happened within the final or 3 many years. it's dif?cult for newcomers to start during this ?eld.

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The illuminating electrons (using a thermionic source) are produced by a spatially incoherent, quasimonochromatic source with non-zero size. 4). The electron rays incident on the specimen are not perfectly parallel but subtend a small cone of angles f3max at the specimen plane. 16>. 41) UXeoh'" -13-max 30 CHAPTER 3. 5: The BF phase contrast transfer function with and without partial coherence. If the coherence length is much smaller than the resolution element of the image then the imaging will be essentially incoherent.

4). 4. 3 the incident wave function was ¢inc '" 1 however with the illumination at an angle (3: ¢inc(X) = exp(27rik,a . 18) where k,a = (3/).. and (3 is the angle of the incident illumination (with respect to the 26 CHAPTER 3. 4: Imaging with non-ideal illumination. The incident electrons have an angle (3. The specimen scatters at an angle )'k and the final angle into the objective lens is 0 (angles measured with respect to the optic axis). A single electron trajectory is shown on the left and the total illumination of a single point on the image is shown on the right.

4 shows that the tilt angle can appear in either the objective lens angle Q or the incident wave function 7j1inc. To see this mathematically take the Fourier transform of 7j1i and use the Fourier convolution theorem: FT {[t(x) exp(21l"ik,B . 24) The inverse Fourier transform is now an integration over k' instead of k (over all space) but gives the same result. 25) Using ho(x, k,a) will make the analytical calculation of the transfer function much simpler. It should be noted that this approximation would not be appropriate for thick specimens because the effect of the specimen is no longer a simple multiplicative function.

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Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy by Earl J. Kirkland
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