By A.P. French

An advent to Quantum Physics. The M.I.T. Introductory Physics sequence

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Quantum Physics. The M.I.T. Introductory Physics Series

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The Franck-Hertz Experinient`'7 In this experiment (see Figure 1-1 1 a), electrons from a hot cathode C were accelerated through mercury vapor at low pressure toward a grid G. Those electrons that passed through the grid could reach the anode A if they had enough energy to overcome a small retarding potential. The accelerating voltage V between cathode and grid was continuously adjustable. 9 V. 9eV =James Franck and Gustav Hertz, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 16, 512 (1914). , 1961). Franck points out that when he and Hertz did the original experiment they had not even heard of the Bohr theory!

For a given value of v or X of the incident light, there is a spread of photoelectron energies down to essentially zero. However, the maximum kinetic energy (Kmax) of a photoelec- tron is fairly sharply defined and varies linearly with v as shown in Figure 1-8, which reproduces the first definitive 18 Simple models of the atom :/ Il:: ' .. ,,. S «i . :# ,.. `; .. I 1. :. , VAX - T ( 1 j 4 mv=by-PPDe 1 LLED _ tt Volts . _LQ ; &V ---I --{ - - -_ -- - ;. -- --- - - - -- - . 1 00-4 X of 4iz4x ; - f_; _.

S of litHol! ' a neta/ target. La(/l Sj)ectriuni eV/ui/)its (in (lhrliJ)t (010/1 (ii oine miuiiuniini lii S c/cult,' 1/i A,,,. (/iflt,' to t/l(' flhiliiIllU lii ii'ati'/ength Am, IS J)F0 I)Orliona/ to the at (eleratint,' voltage J/, [Data a/C. T. U/rev, P/is Rev. ] - ev Then, defining m = (/Xm, we have Maximum \ = Iii',,, - V° a = ph ( oton energy / - Kinetic energy (of incident electron) 15) Experimental data on this relationship are shown in Figure 1-9b. The phenomenon resembles the photoelectric effect in reverse.

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An Introduction to Quantum Physics. The M.I.T. Introductory by A.P. French
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